Home » Archive of journals » No. 2(38) 2020 » Regional biogeographic effects of “fast” climate changes in the Russian Arctic in the 21st century
REGIONAL BIOGEOGRAPHIC EFFECTS OF “FAST” CLIMATE CHANGES IN THE RUSSIAN ARCTIC IN THE 21ST CENTURYJOURNAL: No. 2(38) 2020, p. 31-44
HEADING: Research activities in the Arctic
AUTHORS: Tishkov, A.A., Belonovskaya, E.A., Vaisfeld, M.A., Glazov, P.M., Lappo, E.G., Morozova, O.V., Pokrovskaya, I.V., Tertitsky, G.M., Titova, S.V., Tsarevskaya, N.G.
ORGANIZATIONS: Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences
The article was received on: 21.01.2020
Keywords: biota, greening of tundra, Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, climate change, Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, regional effects, distribution, abundance dynamics and diversity of flora and fauna
Bibliographic description: Tishkov, A.A., Belonovskaya, E.A., Vaisfeld, M.A., Glazov, P.M., Lappo, E.G., Morozova, O.V., Pokrovskaya, I.V., Tertitsky, G.M., Titova, S.V., Tsarevskaya, N.G. Regional biogeographic effects of “fast” climate changes in the Russian Arctic in the 21st century. Arctic: ecology and economy, 2020, no. 2(38), pp. 31-44. DOI: 10.25283/2223-4594-2020-2-31-44. (In Russian).
With the general “warming” trend in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation-(AZRF) up to 0.8—0.9°C/10 years, climate changes manifest in different ways, and biota reacts not only at different rates, but also in different directions. The Arctic “greening” (increasing the vegetation cover productivity), manifests itself unevenly and often due to different processes. In addition, the “initial positions” in the state of the Arctic biota at the beginning of the “fast” climate changes were different in the regions of the Russian Arctic. All this allows us to conclude that models demonstrating the response of Arctic ecosystems to warming, that is their almost complete disappearance with continuing temperature trends by the end of the 21st century, are not correct, and the forecasts for biotic changes are wrong. Besides the methodology of “direct” assessments of the temperature increase effects on Arctic biota by spatial extrapolations (shifting borders and replacing some biomes with others, the disappearance of cryophilic species and expansion of thermophilic plants and animal species in their place, etc.) ignores the regional specifics of the observed phenomena. The article materials are directed precisely against this “mechanistic” approach. The article considers the regional biogeographic effects of climate change in the Arctic — changes in the composition of flora and fauna, ranges of Arctic species, their migrations, etc. For analysis six regions are identified that have multidirectional and different rates of biota transformation processes — Kola-Belomorsky, Bolshezemelsky (Nenets), Yamalo-Gydansky, Taimyrsky, North-Yakutsky, North-Chukchi and South Chukchi, where the climate trends in the last three decades differed significantly in both vector and intensity (by 2 or more times). It is concluded that the results are important for developing a strategy for using biological resources, preserving the biodiversity of the Russian Arctic and protecting its territory.
Finance info: The article was prepared under RFBR grant No. 18-05-60057 “The tundra “greening” as a driver of modern dynamics of Arctic biota” and on the state assignment theme of the Institute of geography of the RAS No. 0148-2019-0007 “Assessment of physical, geographical, hydrological and biotic environmental changes and their implications for creating the basis of sustainable nature management”.
1. Vtoroy otsenochnyy doklad Rosgidrometa ob izmeneniyakh klimata i ikh posledstviyakh na territorii Rossiyskoy Federatsii: Tekhnicheskoye rezyume. [Roshydromet Second Assessment Report on Climate Change and its Consequences in the Russian Federation: Technical Summary]. Moscow, Rosgidromet, 2014, 93 ð. (In Russian).
2. Bhatt U. S., Walker D. A., Raynolds M. K. et al. Recent declines in warming and arctic vegetation greening trends over pan-Arctic tundra. Remote Sens (Special NDVI3g Iss.), 2013, no. 5, ðð. 4229—4254.
3. Walker D. A., Epstein H. E., Raynolds M. K. et al. Environment, vegetation and greenness (NDVI) along the North America and Eurasia Arctic transects. Environ. Res. Lett., 2012, 7, ðp. 1—17.
4. Tishkov A. A., Krenke Jr A. N. “Pozeleneniye” Arktiki v XXI v. kak effekt sinergizma deystviya global’nogo potepleniya i khozyaystvennogo osvoyeniya. [“Greening” of the Arctic in the 21st century as an effect of synergy between global warming and economic development]. Arktika: ekologiya i ekonomika, 2015, no. 4 (20), ðð. 28—38. (In Russian).
5. Belonovskaya E. A., Tishkov A. A., Vaisfel’d M. A., Glazov P. M., Krenke Jr A. N., Morozova O. V., Pokrovskaya I. V., Tsarevskaya N. G., Tertitskii G. M. “Pozeleneniye” Arktiki i sovremennye trendy eyo bioty. [“Greening” of the Arctic and current trends of its biota]. Izv. RAN, Ser. geogr., 2016, no. 3, ðð. 28—39. (In Russian).
6. Tishkov A. A., Belonovskaya E. A., Waisfel’d M. A., Glazov P. M., Krenke-ml A. N., Morozova O. V., Pokrovskaya I. V., Tsarevskaya N. G., Tertitsky G. M. “Pozelenenie” landshaftov Arktiki kak sledstvie sovremennykh klimatogennykh i antropogennykh trendov rastitel’nosti. [“Greening” of Arctic landscapes as a consequence of modern climatogenic and anthropogenic vegetation trends]. Izv. Rus. geogr. o-va, 2016, vîl. 148, no. 3, ðp. 14—24. (In Russian).
7. Tishkov A. A., Belonovskaya E. A., Vaisfel’d M. A., Glazov P. M., Krenke A. N., Tertitskiy G. M. “Pozeleneniye” tundry kak drayver sovremennoy dinamiki arkticheskoy bioty. [“Greening” of the tundra as a driver of modern dynamics of the Arctic biota]. Arktika: ekologiya i ekonomika, 2018, no. 2 (30), ðð. 31—44. DOI: 10.25283/2223-4594-2018-2-31-44. (In Russian).
8. Bala G., Caldeira K., Mirin A. et al. Multicentury Changes to the Global Climate and Carbon Cycle: Results from a Coupled Climate and Carbon Cycle Model. J. of Climate, 2005, vîl. 18, iss. 21, ðp. 4531—4544.
9. Climate Change and Land. An IPCC Special Report on climate change, desertification, land degradation, sustainable land management, food security, and greenhouse gas fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. Summary for Policymakers. Bonn, 2019, 41 ð.
10. Olsson R. Ispol’zovat’ ili okhranyat’? Boreal’nye lesa i izmenenie klimata. [To use or protect? Boreal forests and climate change]. Ustoychivoe lesopol’zovanie, 2011, no. 3 (28), ðp. 23—38. (In Russian).
11. Tishkov A. A., Belonovskaya E. A., Glazov P. M., Krenke A. N., Titova S. V., Tsarevskaya N. G., Shmatova A. G. Antropogennaya transformatsiya arkticheskikh ekosistem Rossii: podkhody, metody, otsenki. [Anthropogenic transformation of the Russian Arctic ecosystems: approaches, methods, assessments]. Arktika: ekologiya i ekonomika, 2019, no. 4 (36), pp. 38—51. DOI: 10.25283/2223-4594-2019-4-38-51. (In Russian).
12. Khitun O. V., Koroleva T. M., Chinenko S. V. et al. Applications of local floras for floristic subdivision and monitoring vascular plant diversity in the Russian Arctic. Arctic Science, 2016, vol. 2, ðð. 103—126.
13. Pospelova E. V., Pospelov I. N., Orlov M. V. Climate change in Eastern Taimyr over the last 80 years and warming impact on biodiversity and ecosystem processes in its territory. Nature Conservation Research, 2017, vol. 2, ðð. 48—60.
14. Matveeva N. V., Zanokha L. L., Yanchenko Z. A. Izmeneniya flory sosudistykh rastenyi d rai’one Tareiskogo biogeozenologicheskogo stazionara (srednee techenie reki Pyasina, zapadny Taimyr) c 1970 po 2010 gg. [Changes in the flora of vascular plants in the area of the Tareya biogeocenological station (middle course of the Pyasina river, Western Taimyr) from 1970 to 2010]. Botan. journ., 2014, vol. 99, no. 8, ðp. 841—867. (In Russian).
15. Pyšek, P., Pergl, J., Essl, F. et al. Naturalized alien flora of the world: species diversity, taxonomic and phylogenetic patterns, geographic distribution and global hotspots of plant invasion. Preslia, 2017, vîl. 89, ðp. 275—290.
16. Lavrinenko I. A., Lavrinenko O. V. Vliyanie klimaticheskikh izmeneni na rastitelny pokrov ostrovov Barenzeva moray. [Influence of climate changes on vegetation cover of the Barents sea islands]. Trudy Karel. nauch. tsentra, 2013, no. 6, ðp. 4—16. (In Russian).
17. Elmendorf S. C., Henry G. H. R., Hollister R. D. et al. Global assessment of experimental climate warming on tundra vegetation: heterogeneity over space and time. Ecol. Lett., 2012, vol. 15, ðð. 164—175.
18. Myers-Smith I., Forbes B. C., Wilmking M. et al. Shrub expansion in tundra ecosystems: dynamics, impacts and research priorities. Environ. Res. Lett., 2011, vol. 6 (4), 045509. DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045509.
19. Daniëls F. J. A., Gillespie L. J., Poulin M. Plants. Arctic Biodiversity Assessment. Status and trends in Arctic biodiversity. Akureyri: Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, 2013, ðð. 312—347.
20. Kalyakin V. N. Fauna ptits i mlekopitayuschikh Novoi Zemli I ozenka ikh sostoyaniya. [Fauna of birds and mammals of the Novaya Zemlya and assessment of its state]. Novaya Zemlya. Vol. 2. Moscow, 1993, ðp. 23—90. (In Russian).
21. Tertitsky G. M., Pokrovskaya I. V. O faune i naselenii ptits Novoi Zemli. [On the fauna and population of birds of Novaya Zemlya]. Rus. ornithol. zhurn., 2011, vîl. 20 (688), ðp. 1827—1836. (In Russian).
22. Glazov P. M. Ptitsy [Birds]. Novaya Zemlya. Izd. 2-e, dop. [S. l.], 2020, ðp. 471—487. (In Russian).
23. Pokrovskaya I. V. Dolgovremennye izmeneniya aviafauny polyarnykh pustyn’ (na primere severa Novoi Zemli). Dinamika chislennosti ptits v nazemnykh landshaftakh. Moscow, IPEE RAN, 2017, ðp. 92—98. (In Russian).
24. Gavrilo M. V. Sovremenny status bolshogo pomornika Catharacta skua na severo-voctoke Baretseva moray. [Modern status of the great Pomeranian Catharacta skua in the North-East of the Barents sea]. Rus. ornithol. zhurn., 2013, vîl. 22 (894), ðp. 1779—1784. (In Russian).
25. Pokrovskaya I. V., Pokhelon A., Gommerstadt O. M., Weiss I. Povtornye registrazii chernobrovogo albatrossa Thalassarche melanophris v rossiiskikh articheskikh vodakh. [Repeated registrations of the black-browed Albatross Thalassarche melanophris in Russian Arctic waters]. Rus. ornithol. zhurn., 2018, vol. 27 (1663), ðp. 4375—4378. (In Russian).
26. Lappo E. G., Tomkovich P. S., Syroechkovsky E. E. Atlas arealov gnezdyaschikhsya êulikov Rossiskoi Arktiki. [Atlas of breeding waders of the Russian Arctic]. Moscow, Izd-vo “Vako”, 2012, 448 p. (In Russian).
27. Kubelka V., Salek M., Tomkovich P. et al. Global pattern of nest predation is disrupted by climate change in shorebirds. Science, Nov. 2018, vol. 362, iss. 6415, pp. 680—683. DOI: 10.1126/science.aat8695.
28. Kyrre L. K., Mysterud A., Steen H. et al. Linking climate change to lemming cycles. Nature, 2008, vol. 456 (7118), pp. 93—97.
© 2011-2022 Arctic: ecology and economy