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Home Archive of journals Issue 3(31) 2018 The cryosphere ecosystems a source of microorganisms with original biological potential

THE CRYOSPHERE ECOSYSTEMS A SOURCE OF MICROORGANISMS WITH ORIGINAL BIOLOGICAL POTENTIAL

JOURNAL: 2018, 3(31), p. 56-64

RUBRIC: Research activities in the Arctic

AUTHORS: Kalenova L.F., Melnikov V.P.

ORGANIZATIONS: Tyumen Scientific Center of SB RAS, Earth Cryosphere Institute, Tyumen Scientific Centre SB RAS

DOI: 10.25283/2223-4594-2018-3-56-64

UDC: 504.7

The article was received on: 21.03.2018

Keywords: adaptogens, cryosphere, metabolites, paleobacteria, ecosystems of permafrost

Bibliographic description: Kalenova L.F., Melnikov V.P. The cryosphere ecosystems a source of microorganisms with original biological potential. The Arctic: ecology and economy, 2018, no. 3(31), pp. 56-64. DOI:10.25283/2223-4594-2018-3-56-64. (In Russian).


ANNOTATION:

Modern warming is much faster than warming during the transition from the last glaciation to interglacial. The warming of the Arctic, reinforced compared to the global one, and changes in Arctic ecosystems are widely known. Ecosystems of permafrost and ice cover of the Arctic zone proved to be more sensitive to changes than ecosystems of temperate latitudes. In connection with these, degradation of polar ice and permafrost can be expected, and microorganisms from the ecosystems of the Pliocene, Paleocene and Pleistocene can enter the modern ecosystems. The role of microorganisms in bio-based systems is extremely high, they practically control many processes, from the accumulation of solar energy on Earth and ending with the health of people. Environmental safety becomes the most important factor determining the existence of man on Earth. In the presented results, the authors tried to pay attention to the effects of warming, namely, the interaction of modern living systems with the microbiota of the cryolithozone, which has not lost its viability for hundreds of thousands and millions of years. It was established that cryosphere ecosystems are a source of microorganisms with original biological potential. More than 30% of the tested strains of microorganisms from permafrost can significantly increase the stress resistance, quality and life expectancy of modern species from various ecosystems (plants, hydrobionts, insects, mammals). In particular, a strain with the properties of a universal adaptogen has been isolated, which acts on the mammalian organism as an immunomodulator, reparant and geroprotector. The ability to interact with microbiota from ancient ecosystems with modern living systems indicates the integrity of the planet’s biosphere. From this perspective, cryolithozone can be regarded as a natural incubator of evolutionarily valuable life forms, and paleobacteria as an invaluable resource of the Arctic and a carrier of original genetic information. Such a system of reserving microbiota of the “eternal” age in the underground storerooms in millions, and possibly tens of millions of years (!) During ancient and modern geological epochs is necessary for preserving life even after the greatest disasters of planetary scale. Microorganisms from the cryolithozone ecosystems can contribute to the expansion of the human adaptive “corridor” and serve as a fundamental base for the formation of species of organisms with parameters corresponding to the new climatic conditions of existence.


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DOI 10.25283/2223-4594