Arctic: ecology and economy
ISSN 2223-4594
Home Archive of journals No. 1(37) 2020 Environmental assessment of different fuel types for energy production in the Arctic regions of the Russian Far East


JOURNAL: No. 1(37) 2020, p. 26-36

HEADING: Ecology

AUTHORS: Maysyuk, E.P., Ivanova, I.Y.

ORGANIZATIONS: Melentiev Energy Systems Institute of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences

DOI: 10.25283/2223-4594-2020-1-26-36

UDC: 620.9:502.15(571.65)

The article was received on: 02.10.2019

Keywords: Arctic zone, diesel power plant, natural environment of the Arctic, thermal power station, specific air emissions, boiler-house

Bibliographic description: Maysyuk, E.P., Ivanova, I.Y. Environmental assessment of different fuel types for energy production in the Arctic regions of the Russian Far East. Arctic: ecology and economy, 2020, no. 1(37), pp. 26-36. DOI: 10.25283/2223-4594-2020-1-26-36. (In Russian).


The Government of the Russian Federation pays great attention to the development of the country’s Arctic territories. Among the priority projects are the development of rare earths, crude oil, natural gas and coal production, as well as diamonds and gold. A significant part of the projects is related to the development of the Arctic territories of the Far East: the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and the Chukotka Autonomous Region.
The development of natural resources of the Arctic zone of the Russian eastern regions will require intensification of the production and social infrastructure, primarily the energy sector. As a rule, the deposits of the eastern Arctic are located in the zone of local energy supply and seasonal transport accessibility. In this regard, the development of rational energy supply schemes in each case will be required. When choosing the energy supply option, environmental assessments are important, reflecting regional territory characteristics, the volume of emissions/discharges and the amount of waste resulting from the production of electric or thermal energy.
At the initial stage of environmental studies, it is proposed to estimate the amount of atmospheric emissions generated when using different fuels for various energy sources: thermal power plants, low-power boiler-houses, diesel power plants. Currently, the following types of fuel are used in the Arctic territories of the Far East: coal from the Beringovsky, Zyryansky, Anadyrsky, Dzhebariki-Khaisky deposits, crude oil, natural gas and diesel fuel. Additionally options for switching autonomous power plants to burning gas and crude oil are considered. The calculated values are given in kg per tonne of equivalent fuel burned in boiler-houses and power plants.
The analysis of the results shows that when coal is burned, environmental indicators are 10–20 times higher than those for liquid and gaseous fuels.
Among the coals used in the territory of the eastern Arctic sector, from the ecological point of view, Zyryansky coal is the worst, due to a relatively high ash content of the fuel.
It should be noted that during the burning of the Anadyrsky brown coal in boiler-houses (ceteris paribus) the smallest amount of pollutants is formed. However, when burning the coal at large thermal power plants, the emission is comparable to emissions when using the Zyryansky coal due to the combustion conditions of this coal, characterized by lower losses of mechanical under-burning for brown coal, and in boiler-houses — due to a smaller number of particles in fly ash.
Thus, an environmental assessment shows that the least harmful to the environment is the burning of natural gas and liquid fuels. Among coals, the most environmentally friendly is Dzhebariki-Khaisky coal. Reducing the amount of emissions from diesel electric plants (DEP) can be achieved by using a gas-diesel or gas-piston process. When switching stand-alone (local) power plants from diesel fuel to crude oil, the amount of air emissions increases by 1.2—1.3 times. While switching to gas-diesel or gas-piston power plants, the emission of some pollutants can be reduced by 15—20 times.

Finance info: The studies were performed as part of the state assignment for the implementation of the basic project of the RAS SB: XI.174.2.3. Comprehensive assessment of energy supply schemes for the development of mineral deposits in the eastern Arctic sector of the Russian Federation (reg. No. AAAA-A17-117030310439-8).


1. Gosudarstvennaya programma Rossiiskoi Federatsii “Sotsial’no-ekonomicheskoe razvitie Arkticheskoi zony Rossiiskoi Federatsii”. Utv. postanovleniem Pravitel’stva RF ot 31 avgusta 2017 g. no. 1064.1. [State program of the Russian Federation “Socio-economic development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation”]. Available at: http://static.government.ru/media/files/GGu3GTtv8bvV8gZx-SEAS1R7XmzloK6ar.pdf. (In Russian).
2. Osnovy gosudarstvennoi politiki Rossiiskoi Federatsii v Arktike na period do 2020 goda i dal’neishuyu perspektivu. Utv. Prezidentom RF ot 18 sentyabrya 2008 g. [The fundamentals of the state policy of the Russian Federation in the Arctic for the period up to 2020 and beyond]. Available at: https://rg.ru/2009/03/30/arktika-osnovy-dok.html. (In Russian).
3. Strategiya razvitiya Arkticheskoi zony Rossiiskoi Federatsii i obespecheniya natsional’noi bezopasnosti na period do 2020 goda. Utv. Prezidentom RF 20 fevralya 2013 g. [Strategy for the development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation and ensuring national security for the period up to 2020]. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/499002465. (In Russian).
4. Volkov A. V., Galyamov A. L., Sidorov A. A. Problemy osvoeniya mineral’nykh resursov Arktiki (na primere Chukotki i Alyaski). [Problems of the Arctic mineral resources development (in terms of Chukotka and Alaska)]. Arktika: ekologiya i ekonomika, 2018, no. 4 (32), pp. 4—14. DOI: 10.25283/2223-4594-2018-4-4-14. (In Russian).
5. Gosudarstvennyi doklad “O sostoyanii i ob okhrane okruzhayushchei sredy Rossiiskoi Federatsii v 2017 godu”. [State report “The state and environmental protection of the Russian Federation in 2017”]. Moscow, Minprirody Rossii; NPP “Kadastr”, 2018, 888 p. (In Russian).
6. Smolentsev D. O. Razvitie energetiki Arktiki: problemy i vozmozhnosti maloi generatsii. [Energy development in the Arctic: problems and opportunities of small generation]. Arktika: ekologiya i ekonomika, 2012, no. 3 (7), pp. 22—29. (In Russian).
7. Mitenkov F. M. K voprosu ob aktual’nosti maloi atomnoi energetiki dlya perspektivnogo razvitiya pribrezhnoi Arktiki i Dal’nevostochnogo regiona. [To the question of the relevance of small nuclear energy for the future development of the coastal Arctic of the Far Eastern region]. Arktika: ekologiya i ekonomika, 2011, no. 4, pp. 58—63. (In Russian).
8. Mel’nikov N. N., Gusak S. A., Amosov P. V. et al. Issledovaniya po obosnovaniyu metodologii sozdaniya podzemnykh kompleksov dlya razmeshcheniya atomnykh stantsii maloi moshchnosti v usloviyakh Arktiki. [Studies on the justification of the methodology for the creation of underground complexes for the placement of small nuclear power plants in the Arctic]. Arktika: ekologiya i ekonomika, 2018, no. 3 (31), pp. 123—136. DOI: 10.25283/2223-4594-2018-3-123-136. (In Russian).
9. Gosudarstvennyi balans zapasov poleznykh iskopaemykh Rossiiskoi Federatsii (na 1 yanvarya 2006 goda). Iss. 91. Ugol’. Vol. 8. Dal’nevostochnyi federal’nyi okrug. [The State Balance of Mineral Reserves of the Russian Federation (as of January 1, 2006). Iss. 91. Coal. Vol. 8. Far Eastern Federal District]. Moscow, Feder. agentstvo po nedropol’zovaniyu, 2006, 320 s. (In Russian).
10. Ugol’naya baza Rossii. Vol. 5. Bk. 2. Ugol’nye basseiny i mestorozhdeniya Dal’nego Vostoka (Respublika Sakha, Severo-Vostok, o. Sakhalin, p-ov Kamchatka). [Coal base of Russia. Volume V. Book 2. Coal basins and deposits of the Far East of Russia (Republic of Sakha, Northeast, Sakhalin Island, Kamchatka Peninsula)]. Moscow, ZAO “Geoinformmark”, 1999, 638 p. (In Russian).
11. Metodika opredeleniya valovykh vybrosov zagryaznyayushchikh veshchestv v atmosferu ot kotel’nykh ustanovok TES. RD 34.02.305-98. VTI. [The method of determining the gross emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere from boiler plants TPP. RD 34.02.305-98. VTI]. Moscow, 1998. (In Russian).
12. Sbornik metodik po raschetu vybrosov v atmosferu zagryaznyayushchikh veshchestv razlichnymi proizvodstvami. [Collection of methods for calculating emissions into the atmosphere of pollutants by various industries]. Leningrad, Goskomgidromet, 1986, 142 p. (In Russian).
13. Metodika rascheta vybrosov zagryaznyayushchikh veshchestv v atmosferu ot statsionarnykh dizel’nykh ustanovok. [The method of calculating emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere from stationary diesel installations]. M-vo prirod. resursov Ros. Fed. Nauch.-issled. in-t okhrany atmosfernogo vozdukha (NII Atmosfera); Firma “Integral”. St. Petersburg, 2001, 15 p., 15 p. (In Russian).
14. GOST R 51249-99. Dizeli sudovye, teplovoznye i promyshlennye. Vybrosy vrednykh veshchestv s otrabotavshimi gazami. Normy i metody opredeleniya. [GOST R 51249-99. Ship, diesel and industrial diesel engines. Emissions of harmful substances with exhaust gases. Rules and methods of determination]. Moscow, Izd-vo standartov, 1999. (In Russian).
15. Metodicheskoe posobie po raschetu, normirovaniyu i kontrolyu vybrosov zagryaznyayushchikh veshchestv v atmosfernyi vozdukh. [Methodological manual for calculating, rationing and controlling emissions of pollutants into the air]. St. Petersburg, 2005. (In Russian).
16. Metodika opredeleniya vybrosov zagryaznyayushchikh veshchestv v atmosferu pri szhiganii topliva v kotlakh proizvoditel’nost’yu menee 30 tonn para v chas ili menee 20 Gkal v chas. [The method of determining emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere when burning fuel in boilers with a capacity of less than 30 tons of steam per hour or less than 20 Gcal per hour]. Moscow, Gos. komitet po okhrane okruzhayushchei sredy Ros. Fed. (pri uchastii firmy “Integral”, Sankt-Peterburg), 1999, 53 p. (In Russian).
17. Metodicheskoe pis’mo NII Atmosfera 335/33-07 ot 17 maya 2000 g. “O provedenii raschetov vybrosov vrednykh veshchestv v atmosferu po “Metodike opredeleniya vybrosov zagryaznyayushchikh veshchestv v atmosferu pri szhiganii topliva v kotlakh proizvoditel’nost’yu menee 30 tonn para v chas ili menee 20 Gkal v chas” (Moscow, 1999). [Methodological letter of the Scientific Research Institute Atmosphere No.335 / 33-07 dated May 17, 2000 “On the calculation of emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere according to” Methodology for determining emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere when fuel is burned in boilers with a capacity of less than 30 tons of steam per hour or less 20 Gcal per hour” (Moscow, 1999)]. St. Petersburg, NII Atmosfera, 2000, 20 p. (In Russian).
18. Bondarev L. G. Landshafty, metally i chelovek. [Landscapes, metals and man]. Moscow, Mysl’, 1976, 73 p. (In Russian).
19. Kiselev A. V., Khudolei V. V. Otravlennye goroda. [Poisoned cities]. Moscow, Greenpeace, 1995, 20 p. (In Russian).
20. Koshelev A. A., Tashkinova G. V., Chebanenko B. B. et al. Ekologicheskie problemy energetiki. [Environmental problems of energy sector]. Novosibirsk, Nauka, 1989, 322 p. (In Russian).
21. Chebanenko B. B., Maysyuk E. P. Baikal’skii region: predely ustoichivosti. [Baikal region: limits of stability]. Novosibirsk, Nauka, 2002, 160 p. (In Russian).
22. Chebanenko B. B., Maysyuk E. P. Otsenka ekologicheskoi opasnosti pri ispol’zovanii organicheskikh topliv. [Assessment of environmental hazards when using organic fuels]. Ekologicheskie problemy ugledobyvayushchei otrasli v regione pri perekhode k ustoichivomu razvitiyu: Trudy mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii. Vol. 1. Kemerovo, Kuzbassvuzizdat, 1999, pp. 219—227. (In Russian).
23. Natsional’nyi doklad o kadastre antropogennykh vybrosov iz istochnikov i absorbtsii poglotitelyami parnikovykh gazov, ne reguliruemykh Monreal’skim protokolom, za 1990—2010 gg. Ros. Fed. [National report of the Russian Federation on the inventory of anthropogenic emissions from sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases not regulated by the Montreal Protocol for 1990—2010. Russian Federation]. Moscow, 2012. (In Russian).
24. Metodicheskie ukazaniya i rukovodstvo po kolichestvennomu opredeleniyu ob”emov vybrosov parnikovykh gazov organizatsiyami, osushchestvlyayushchimi khozyaistvennuyu i inuyu deyatel’nost’ v Rossiiskoi Federatsii. Utv. prikazom Minprirody Rossii ot 30 iyunya 2015 g. [Methodical instructions and guidelines for the quantitative determination of greenhouse gas emissions by organizations engaged in economic and other activities in the Russian Federation. Approved by the order of the Ministry of natural resources of Russia dated by June 30, 2015]. Available at: http://sro150.ru/metodiki/371-metodika-rascheta-vybrosov-parnikovykh-gazov. (In Russian).
25. Szhiganie topliva na krupnykh ustanovkakh v tselyakh proizvodstva energii: Informatsionno-tekhnicheskii spravochnik po nailuchshim dostupnym tekhnologiyam (ITS 38-2017). [Combustion of fuel in large installations for energy production. Information technology Handbook on best available technologies]. Feder. agentstvo po tekhn. regulirovaniyu i metrologii; Byuro NDT. Moscow, 2017, 280 p. (In Russian).

Download »

© 2011-2022 Arctic: ecology and economy
DOI 10.25283/2223-4594