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TRANSFORMATION OF REINDEER FARMING UNDER THE MARKET ECONOMY CONDITIONS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF YAMAL)JOURNAL: 2020, є4(40), p. 139-150
HEADING: The quality and standard of living of North Indigenous Peoples
AUTHORS: Yuzhakov A.A., Detter G.F.
ORGANIZATIONS: Northwest Center for Interdisciplinary Problems of Food Security, Scientific Center for the Study of the Arctic of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Region
The article was received on: 31.07.2020
Keywords: northern reindeer herding, Yamal peninsula, family and clan farms, private reindeer farmers, reindeer products, transformation of reindeer farming, reindeer pastures
Bibliographic description: Yuzhakov A.A., Detter G.F. Transformation of reindeer farming under the market economy conditions (on the example of Yamal). Arctic: ecology and economy, 2020, no. 4(40), pp. 139-150. DOI: 10.25283/2223-4594-2020-4-139-150. (In Russian).
The authors investigate the economic transformation of reindeer farming in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District. The region is unique for having the largest number of domesticated reindeer and nomadic indigenous peoples in the world. The conceptual basis of the research is the idea of reindeer farming as a unique biosocial system, including the triad “man-reindeer-pasture”. The study analyzes the historical, social and economic transformations of reindeer farming in the region, where at least 60% of the private livestock of domesticated reindeer in the Arctic zone of Russia have always grazed. An increase in the number of reindeer was observed in private farms even during the years of economic crisis, reforms and industrial development of the territory. Private reindeer farmers belong to former sovkhozs (post-state farms), communities and unassociated “private” owners. Only half of the reindeer farming communities are registered in the state register and receive subsidies for the sale of products. Post-state farms have government subsidies that are significantly higher than reindeer farming communities, which increases the cost of their production two to three times. “Private traders” do not receive subsidies to increase the number of reindeer and the products they sell. The liberalization of the economy lifted restrictions on private reindeer farms, and their quantitative growth exceeded the norms permissible for pastures. At the same time, private reindeer farms produce almost 70% of marketable products, primarily meat, dags and antlers. Only 36% of personal subsidiary plots are included in legal entities, which makes it difficult to organize the regulated use of pastureland in the region. The administration of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District, together with scientific and public organizations, has developed a conceptual plan for the reorganization of private reindeer farms into peasant (farmer) enterprises. A register of producers is being created to allocate state and municipal subsidies. It is planned to speed up the cooperation of private farms in order to improve their manageability. There is a process of reducing the number of post-state farms in order to focus reindeer farming mainly on preserving the traditional way of life and reproducing the ethno-culture of the Arctic indigenous peoples.
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